during the light reactions, the pigments and proteins of

This energy then excites an electron in the reaction center causing it to break free and be passed to the primary electron acceptor. Identify factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs. The energy that these molecules carry is stored in a bond that holds a single atom to the molecule. • It's actually occurring simultaneously with the light reactions. In the light reactions, pigment molecules in photo systems capture photons of light, and energy from light becomes stored as potential energy in ATP and NADPH The carbon reactions of photosynthesis occur in the _____________, which is the fluid interior of chloroplasts. • Series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions Light energy is absorbed by ______ in the pigments found in … Figure 1. It just doesn't need the photons from the sun. The energy is present initially as light. NADH will be discussed further in relation to cellular respiration, which occurs in the mitochondrion, where it carries energy from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. The hydrogen ions are allowed to pass through the thylakoid membrane through an embedded protein complex called ATP synthase. The excited electron must then be replaced. Light strikes pigment molecule and boosts one of its electrons to a higher energy level. During the process of photosynthesis, they have functions in light-harvesting (as accessory pigments), in photoprotection (energy dissipation via non-photochemical quenching as well as singlet oxygen scavenging for prevention of photooxidative damage), and also serve as protein structural elements. As the electron passes along these proteins, energy from the electron fuels membrane pumps that actively move hydrogen ions against their concentration gradient from the stroma into the thylakoid space. Thylakoids are membrane-bound structures embedded in the chloroplast stroma.A stack of thylakoids is called a granum and resembles a stack of coins. The energy from this electron drives the formation of NADPH from NADP+ and a hydrogen ion (H+). The light-dependent reactions begin in a grouping of pigment molecules and proteins called a photosystem. A pigment molecule in the photosystem absorbs one photon, a quantity or “packet” of light energy, at a time. A photon strikes photosystem II to initiate photosynthesis. This energy is transferred from one pigment molecule to another until eventually (after about a millionth of a second) it is delivered to the reaction center. Photosystems exist in the membranes of thylakoids. The light-dependent reactions begin in a grouping of pigment molecules and proteins called a photosystem. The photon causes an electron in the chlorophyll to become “excited.” The energy given to the electron then travels from one pigment molecule to another until it reaches a pair of chlorophyll a molecules called the reaction center. In the light-dependent reactions, energy absorbed by sunlight is stored by two types of energy-carrier molecules: ATP and NADPH. This electron transport system uses the energy from the electron to pump hydrogen ions into the interior of the thylakoid. Technically, each breaking of a water molecule releases a pair of electrons, and therefore can replace two donated electrons. I don't like using the word dark reaction because it actually occurs while the sun is outside. A photon of light energy travels until it reaches a molecule of chlorophyll. The excited electron must then be replaced. The remaining function of the light-dependent reaction is to generate the other energy-carrier molecule, NADPH. The inside of the thylakoid membrane is called the lumen, and outside the thylakoid membrane is the stroma, where the light-independent reactions take place. In eukaryotes, two photosystems exist, the first is called photosystem II, which is named for the order of its discovery rather than for the order of function. The most common and abundant pigment is chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a -Chlorophyll a is a pigment that participates directly in the light reactions of photosynthesis -it is a large molecule with a single magnesium atom in the head surrounded by alternating double and single bonds -the head of Chlorophyll a, called the porphyrin ring, is attached to a long hydrocarbon tail This splitting releases an electron and results in the formation of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen ions (H+) in the thylakoid space. 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