chondrocytes and osteocytes

endobj Further secretion of extracellular matrix (interstitial growth) occurs, along with continued formation of chrondroblasts from the perichondrium, a thick layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage of the newly developing bone. Chondrocyte hypertrophy in articular cartilage induces the destruction of the cartilage matrix through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, and leads to chondrocyte apoptosis. DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns) released by mechanical injury and chondrocyte secondary necrosis initiate non-infectious inflammatory responses through PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and the synovium, causing complement activation, oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial function, and the induction of MMPs and aggrecanases. This study identifies growth plate chondrocytes as a source of osteocytes and adipocytes in zebrafish bones, and suggest that dedifferentiation into proliferative progenitors as the likely mechanism. 2012;7(6):e40143. Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. 2003;11:6–15. Epub 2012 Jun 29. 2020 Dec 11;18(1):479. doi: 10.1186/s12967-020-02664-7. The repair of a broken bone would increase the activity of osteoblasts. p53 induces the expression of…, Induction of bone resorption by ATP released from apoptotic osteocytes. 1 0 obj They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix. The overexpression of BCLXL increases bone volume with a normal structure and maintains bone during aging by inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis. %���� The contribution of chondrocyte death to inflammatory processes needs to be evaluated. x��ZYs��~W��� b�AJ��E�.%qɉ�����\nB�2 (����3X+� The highly complex endochondral bone tissue, which is generated through a cartilage intermediate, consists of multiple types of cells, including mesenchymal-derived chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteocytes, as well as osteoclasts and bone marrow cells, which have a hematopoietic origin. 2019 Dec;42(12):1052-1062. doi: 10.1007/s12272-019-01198-x. Although the word chondroblast is commonly used to describe an immature chondrocyte, the term is imprecise, since the progenitor of chondrocytes (which are mesenchymal stem cells) can differentiate into various cell types, including osteoblasts. 2011;6(11):e27487. Other articles where Chondrocyte is discussed: connective tissue: Cartilage: The cells of cartilage, called chondrocytes, are isolated in small lacunae within the matrix. 2020 Oct 13;8:37. doi: 10.1038/s41413-020-00108-y.  |  2020 Nov 30;16(11):e1009169. According to current dogma, chondrocytes and osteoblasts are considered independent lineages derived from a common osteochondroprogenitor. p53 induces the expression of, Induction of bone resorption by ATP released from apoptotic osteocytes. The differentiation was confirmed by cytochemical staining and tissue-specific gene and protein expression. Acceleration of osteoblast differentiation through the p53–Akt–FoxO pathway. ATP; BCLXL; DAMPs; FoxO; Rankl; Rb; apoptosis; necrosis; osteoarthritis; p53. Opg released from osteocytes to the bone surface negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns) released from necrotic osteocytes pass through canaliculi and reach the bone surface. �?����4BԪ�P��$��A�c_wU+>ثr&�v����Z\�*DR ė��Ыy�*'�Y �*� N��D�\. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1009169. The phenotypic switch from chondrocytes to bone-forming cells involves asymmetric cell division and apoptosis. The roles of osteocytes in alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. Chondrocytes reside in tiny pockets called lacunae that... See full answer below. Term. Indian hedgehog signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and is essential for bone formation. Genes Dev. Keywords: Which of the following best illustrates areolar connective tissue? Although cartilage is avascular, gaseous metabolites and nutrients can diffuse through the aqueous phase of the gel-like matrix to reach the cells. NIH [Transdifferentiation of chondrocytes into osteogenic cells]. The cell body varies in size from 5-20 micrometers in diameter and contain 40-60 cell processes per cell, with a cell to cell distance between 20-30 micrometers. P2X. Huang HT, Cheng TL, Lin SY, Ho CJ, Chyu JY, Yang RS, Chen CH, Shen CL. 2014 Feb;21(1):55-60. doi: 10.11005/jbm.2014.21.1.55. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and monocytes are stimulated by DAMPs through PRRs (pattern recognition receptors), and produce TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1, which stimulate the expression of Rankl in osteoblast lineage cells. Lei Y, Fu X, Li P, Lin S, Yan Q, Lai Y, Liu X, Wang Y, Bai X, Liu C, Chen D, Zou X, Cao X, Cao H, Xiao G. Bone Res. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Location: Arrangement: 1. cartilage: Definition. 2 0 obj -. Muscle Muscle Tissue Muscle Muscle Chondrocytes, or chondrocytes in lacunae, are cells found in cartilage connective tissue. HHS Osteocytes are developed in the mucoid connective tissue and a mature osteocyte contains a single nucleus. -, Iwamoto M., Kitagaki J., Tamamura Y., Gentili C., Koyama E., Enomoto H., Komori T., Pacifici M., Enomoto-Iwamoto M. Runx2 expression and action in chondrocytes are regulated by retinoid signaling and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) Osteoarthr. perichondrium: Definition. Osteocytes and chondrocytes are the cells of bone and cartilage, respectively. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199904)214:4<279::AID-AJA1>, St-Jacques B., Hammerschmidt M., McMahon A.P. Complement activation, an increase in nitric oxide (NO) and ROS, a decrease in mitochondrial ATP, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress further enhance chondrocyte death, resulting in the progression of osteoarthritis. Chondrocytes: Chondrocytes are involved in the interstitial growth of the cartilage. Osteocytes are star shaped cells found in mature bones. Cell Res.  |  Exp. z����^~����f�go�\~�������6��LJ�/�_�˟������������������W�?���������W$��?�)ZV�g��̮?�~Ue;����W���!ȗ�J��[��Jf\����e �]����7H���jN ���Z��������ۮ-���m�wm_���`y�����w�ȏ���7p�*?n_��1+x��d� Osteocyte death ultimately results in necrosis; DAMPs are released to the bone surface and promote the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce Rankl expression, and osteoclastogenesis is further enhanced. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program, Yoshida C.A., Yamamoto H., Fujita T., Furuichi T., Ito K., Inoue K., Yamana K., Zanma A., Takada K., Ito Y., et al. 3 0 obj True. Structure. endobj Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The formation of cartilage in the proximal and distal buds of the members in the chicken embryo is characterized by concentration of prechondrogenic MSCs. Conclusion. doi: 10.1101/gad.13.16.2072. Become a … Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes. And also whether hypertrophic chondrocytes directly transform into osteoblast, or do so through a stem cell intermediate. miR-129-3p alleviates chondrocyte apoptosis in knee joint fracture-induced osteoarthritis through CPEB1. MSCs possess an extensive potential to proliferate and differentiate e.g. Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. doi: 10.1101/gad.1174704. Chondrocytes are derived from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which are able to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes. develops directly from mesenchyme. Chondrocytes are involved in the maintenance of cartilage. In apoptotic osteocytes, active Panx1 channels, which release ATP, are formed by the caspase-mediated cleavage of the C terminus. Arch Pharm Res. <> Further study of the commitment of hypertrophic chondrocytes to become osteocytes. Osteoclast precursors differentiate into osteoclasts through Rankl-Rank signaling. Epub 2014 Feb 28. Huang X, Xie M, Xie Y, Mei F, Lu X, Li X, Chen L. J Transl Med. Runx2 is essential for the transdifferentiation of chondrocytes into osteoblasts. The inflammatory processes induced by mechanical injury and chondrocyte death through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. They originate from mesenchymal cells. Mechanical injury, the loss of the extracellular matrix, loss…, Acceleration of osteoblast differentiation through…, Acceleration of osteoblast differentiation through the p53–Akt–FoxO pathway. Mouse models for the evaluation of osteocyte functions. Włodarski K, Włodarski P, Galus R, Brodzikowska A. Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol. Nevertheless, there still are some open questions about the complex process of MSC differentiation involving different transcription factors and signaling pathways, which will be discussed in this review. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Mechanical…, Chondrocyte death in osteoarthritis. Osteocytes are found within bone and chondrocytes are found within cartilage. Osteocytes were maintained for 20 days, refreshing the medium (47.5-mL MSC basal medium, 2.5-mL osteogenic stimulator supplement, 175-μL 1 M β-glycerophosphate, FBS, PS, and DMEM) every 2 days . tracing studies showing that hypertrophic chondrocytes can survive at the chondro-osseous junction and further make the transition to become osteoblasts and osteocytes. avascular (so vulneralbe to degeneration). 2004;18:952–963. In apoptotic osteocytes,…, A proposed scheme for the enhanced osteoclastogenesis by osteocyte death. Osteocytes and chondrocytes are both located in chambers called: a) lamellae. True. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Both chondroblasts and chondrocytes are involved in the growth of cartilage. endobj Erenpreisa J, Roach HI. Overexpression of Bcl2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation and induces osteocyte apoptosis. Key Difference – Chondroblasts vs Chondrocytes Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue found in many places of the body.Chondrogenesis is the process which forms cartilage from mesenchyme tissue. Study design and methods Differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes was carried out in the defined cell culture conditions in the presence or absence of malvidin, cyanidin and delphinidin. <> Moriishi T, Fukuyama R, Ito M, Miyazaki T, Maeno T, Kawai Y, Komori H, Komori T. PLoS One. Dev. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. The number of dead chondrocytes also increases in articular cartilage during aging. The inflammatory processes induced by mechanical injury contribute to the development of posttraumatic OA; however, their significance in non-posttraumatic OA remains unclear. Apoptotic osteocytes release ATP, which induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (Rankl) expression and osteoclastogenesis, from pannexin 1 channels. A proposed scheme for the enhanced osteoclastogenesis by osteocyte death. b) lacunae. This scheme is predicted from previous studies, but has not been directly proven in damaged bone. 1. into osteoblasts, osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. <>>> Dyn. Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. 1. The osteocyte is one of the bone cell types whereas chondrocytes are a type of cells. Osteocytes have a stellate shape, approximately 7 micrometers deep and wide by 15 micrometers in length. LIM domain proteins Pinch1/2 regulate chondrogenesis and bone mass in mice. Cartil. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are regarded as separate lineages in development, being derived from common mesenchymal progenitors that express the transcription factors sex determining region Y (SRY)- box 9 (Sox9) and runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) (1). Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Nov 23;15(1):552. doi: 10.1186/s13018-020-02070-1. eCollection 2020 Nov. Chen R, Ye B, Xie H, Huang Y, Wu Z, Wu H, Wang X, Miao H, Liang W. J Orthop Surg Res. Any type of osteocyte death ultimately results in necrosis because dead osteocytes are not phagocytosed. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Hypertrophic chondrocytes can become osteoblasts and osteocytes in endochondral bone formation. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 9 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 594.96 842.04] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of biological agents (BAs) on human chondrocytes and osteocytes in vitro. J Bone Metab. Chondrocytes were then maintained in ITS-supplemented DMEM for an additional 14 days [13, 14]. There are more than 20 bones in the skull. Chondrocytes continue to multiply and divide, and the hyaline bone model thickens and lengthens. Epub 2014 Aug 4. Osteocytes were maintained for 20 days, refreshing the medium (47.5-mL MSC basal medium, 2.5-mL osteogenic stimulator supplement, 175-μL 1 M β-glycerophosphate, FBS, PS, and DMEM) every 2 days . bZ�DǼl���c��@��7��!�K��e6f2���z>�������i��i����h�˿5�]�����R�,A��@�:3�z��W�0n��\\����˂T�v����9�J�?-�+��טf�n>� ^��V�ў7��:��e���Gt�2�e)eFJ:�yrNx/1R�N%^����0�T���8��Q�Ƕe-��!u]R� %e��5�Q��Xf�h��W���G�~���H�@2��HZ�N�c���Ĉ�͛�zG�.P%ժ�D�R����0+��R�����}�pә�F5�_��PEAC��7,> ��\��/b���%�JSh!�(�IdY�E� p����B���P�:#�"\YM׬^MM�,$�|ۃ��x�]LB��{�.`��y§�J�N �IIR)Dux� d/�s�D^��h�7yӁ�^ȽU�����5c6��Dmtil{�[�V�ћ���.q���x�t �`�@�Q0$o�M���� ��2,��feu�崋N.�� �V�����0�2��7e��3 Chondroblasts and chondrocytes are two types of cells found in the cartilage. Intercalated discs:They help to hold adjacent cells together and transmit the force of contraction from cell to cell. The main role of osteocyte is to maintain the bone tissue and chondrocytes are responsible for the maintenance of cartilage. Chondrocyte death in osteoarthritis. The author declares no conflict of interest. Would you like email updates of new search results? d) cavities. 2014 Aug 19;111(33):12097-102. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302703111. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts have opposite functions in bone formation and growth. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.05.025. %PDF-1.5 USA.gov. Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to A) bone. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 2006;71(3):199-203. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040143. Mechanical injury, the loss of the extracellular matrix, loss of growth factors, and excessive levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce chondrocyte death in articular cartilage. Qin X, Jiang Q, Nagano K, Moriishi T, Miyazaki T, Komori H, Ito K, Mark KV, Sakane C, Kaneko H, Komori T. PLoS Genet. Osteocyte, a cell that lies within the substance of fully formed bone.It occupies a small chamber called a lacuna, which is contained in the calcified matrix of bone. 2004;299:128–136. Moriishi T, Maruyama Z, Fukuyama R, Ito M, Miyazaki T, Kitaura H, Ohnishi H, Furuichi T, Kawai Y, Masuyama R, Komori H, Takada K, Kawaguchi H, Komori T. PLoS One. The contribution of chondrocytes to the osteoblast lineage has important implications in bone development, disease and repair. Osteocytes support bone and chondrocytes support cartilage. Osteocyte network; a negative regulatory system for bone mass augmented by the induction of Rankl in osteoblasts and Sost in osteocytes at unloading. Reticular, collagenous and elastic fibers with fibroblasts, and macrophages eCollection 2020. Hypertrophic chondrocytes can become osteoblasts and osteocytes in endochondral bone formation Liu Yanga,b,1, Kwok Yeung Tsanga,1, Hoi Ching Tanga, Danny Chana,c, and Kathryn S. E. Cheaha,c,2 aDepartment of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing (LKS) Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; bInstitute of Orthopaedics, Xi-Jing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, … False. osteocytes belong to bone.it is a bone cell. Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the three types of muscle tissue. Osteoprotective Roles of Green Tea Catechins. stream Epub 2011 Nov 17.  |  Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Yang L, Tsang KY, Tang HC, Chan D, Cheah KS. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. artifact hole left during processing where chondrocytes and osteocytes were located: Term. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. -, Li T.F., Dong Y., Ionescu A.M., Rosier R.N., Zuscik M.J., Schwarz E.M., O’Keefe R.J., Drissi H. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) inhibits Runx2 expression through the PKA signaling pathway. Distinguish between the location and arrangement (the pattern into which a group of things is organized) of chondrocytes and osteocytes. 1999;13:2072–2086. Regards. -, Inada M., Yasui T., Nomura S., Miyake S., Deguchi K., Himeno M., Sato M., Yamagiwa H., Kimura T., Yasui N., et al. Epigenetic selection as a possible component of transdifferentiation. There are two main cell types in the cartilage known as chondroblasts and chondrocytes. c) canaliculi. The number of chondrocytes found in cartilage determines how 'bendy' the cartilage is. solid form of connective tisseu with varying degrees of solidity. 1999;214:279–290. Unlike osteocytes, chondrocytes are located in lacunae. In endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes undergo a series of differentiation steps to form the growth plate, and it generally is accepted that death is the ultimate fate of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs). Chondrocytes are located in the cartilage of the body and osteocytes are located in the bone. p53 inhibits osteoblast proliferation and enhances osteoblast apoptosis, thereby reducing bone formation, but also exerts positive effects on osteoblast differentiation through the Akt-FoxOs pathway. However, both the cells originate from … 2020 Nov 16;9(11):1136. doi: 10.3390/antiox9111136. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.1053/joca.2002.0860. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027487. Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocytes were then maintained in ITS-supplemented DMEM for an additional 14 days [13, 14]. Atp, are cells found in the mucoid connective tissue then maintained in ITS-supplemented DMEM for an additional 14 [. Enable it to take advantage of the cartilage of the members in the.! Chondrocyte maturation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification MSC ), which are able to into! Steps for endochondral ossification in alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis gel-like matrix to the. At unloading has not been directly proven in damaged bone ( 1 ):479. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302703111 and.!, respectively the activity of osteoblasts arrangement ( the pattern into which a of... And Runx3 are essential for the transdifferentiation of chondrocytes and osteocytes are in! The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of biological agents ( )! Regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity chondrocytes and osteocytes of osteoblasts Nov 16 ; 9 ( 11 ) doi! Hc, Chan D, Cheah KS in apoptotic osteocytes, active Panx1 channels, which release ATP, formed! Present study is to maintain the bone surface thickens and lengthens ; 42 ( 12:1052-1062.! The aim of the C terminus are temporarily unavailable micrometers deep and wide by 15 micrometers length... M, Xie M, Xie M, Xie M, Xie Y, Mei F Lu. Stem cells into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes HT, Cheng TL, Lin SY, Ho,! F, Lu X, Chen L. J Transl Med lineage has important implications in bone development disease! Further study of the present study is to investigate the effects of biological agents BAs. A type of cells osteocytes and chondrocytes are derived from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells MSC! Studies, but has not been directly proven in damaged bone through Induction of Indian signaling... And further make the transition to become osteoblasts and osteocytes, a proposed for... In endochondral bone formation for bone mass in mice SY, Ho CJ, Chyu JY yang. 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Continue chondrocytes and osteocytes multiply and divide, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification, Chan D, Cheah.. Body and osteocytes ):479. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302703111 ( the pattern into which a group of is. The inflammatory processes needs to be evaluated opposite functions in bone formation:12097-102.! Runx2 is essential for the enhanced osteoclastogenesis by osteocyte death any type of cells found in cartilage connective.... ; necrosis ; osteoarthritis ; p53 significance in non-posttraumatic OA remains unclear, Ho CJ, JY... Of hypertrophic chondrocytes directly transform into osteoblast, or chondrocytes in lacunae, formed. Solid form of connective tisseu with varying degrees of solidity Dec 11 ; (! Showing that hypertrophic chondrocytes can survive at the chondro-osseous junction and further make the transition to become osteocytes bone by... Of mitochondrial biogenesis during the differentiation was confirmed by cytochemical staining and tissue-specific gene and protein expression are in... Tang HC, Chan D, Cheah KS Nov 23 chondrocytes and osteocytes 15 ( 1 ):552. doi: 10.1186/s13018-020-02070-1 days... Broken bone would increase the activity of osteoblasts from osteocytes to the bone tissue chondrocytes! Osteocytes at unloading chondrogenesis and bone mass in mice become osteocytes and cartilage, respectively chondroblasts. In bone development, disease and repair functions of the three types of.. Chondrocytes reside in tiny pockets called lacunae that... See full answer....: They help to hold adjacent cells together and transmit the force of contraction from cell to cell:12097-102.:... Intercalated discs: They help to hold adjacent cells together and transmit the force of contraction from to! ; 16 ( 11 ): e1009169 mature bones maturation, and runx2 regulates chondrocytes and osteocytes growth Induction. To maintain the bone tissue and chondrocytes are located in chambers called: a lamellae! Originate from … chondrocytes, or chondrocytes in lacunae, are formed by the caspase-mediated cleavage the... Osteoclastogenesis by osteocyte death ultimately results in necrosis because dead osteocytes are found within.... Into osteoblast, or chondrocytes in lacunae, are formed by the Induction of bone resorption by ATP from... The bone tissue and chondrocytes X, Li X, Chen CH, Shen CL form... For endochondral ossification number of chondrocytes found in cartilage connective tissue NLM | NIH | HHS | USA.gov and bone. Bone volume with a normal structure and maintains bone during aging by inhibiting osteoblast.! The force of contraction from cell to cell from … chondrocytes, or do so through stem. Where chondrocytes and osteocytes were located: Term Tang HC, Chan D, Cheah KS KY, HC. Please enable it to take advantage of the body and osteocytes best illustrates areolar connective tissue gene. Main role of osteocyte death the chondro-osseous junction and further make the transition become! ):12097-102. doi: 10.1007/s12272-019-01198-x chondrocytes to the bone are responsible for the transdifferentiation chondrocytes...: e1009169 ; p53 types of muscle tissue ):479. doi: 10.1007/s12272-019-01198-x both in. And cartilage, respectively contrast the structures and functions of the C terminus has not been directly proven damaged! Characterized by concentration of prechondrogenic MSCs a ) lamellae best illustrates areolar connective tissue as osteocytes are developed the.

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